Portugal is located in the south western part of the continent of Europe and it is surrounded by the opulence of the Atlantic Ocean in the south and west and the country of Spain in the north and east. In Portugal about 38% of the total land surface is covered by forests which are much higher than the total area devoted to cultivation of agricultural crops in the country. The forest resources obtained in Portugal comprise about 10% of total exports and contribute immensely in the economic growth and development of the country. If one looks at the total forest area of Portugal, it will be seen that the maximum portion is covered by the maritime pines or the wild pine trees which occupy around 31% of the forest area and is followed by the eucalyptus and cork oak plantations. The holm oak trees are also prevalent in the Mediterranean regions and in Portugal which is dominated by the Mediterranean type of climate, holm oak trees grow in abundance occupying approximately an area of 464,000 ha. In fact the forest cover of Portugal is divided into two major parts. The first comprises of the plantation area which includes eucalyptus and the maritime pines while the other is the comprised by the indigenous species which includes cork oak and holm oak trees. The holm oak or Quercus ilex are prevalent in the Mediterranean regions and in the areas adjoining the Atlantic Ocean, they are mostly to be found. From the sea level they can grow up to an altitude of about 1400 meters and the warm temperature which is characteristic of the Mediterranean region is conducive to its growth.
In Portugal, every year forest wildfires destroy huge tracts of land and vegetation and this has affected the holm oak trees too. In the absence of proper laws governing forest affairs and incompetent firefighters have led to the loss of plantations. However, measures are being taken now to preserve forest resources.